Archive for the ‘Climate Change’ category

UK developments on climate change risks disclosure

13 February, 2010

In the UK there is a growing scrutiny of how climate change and environment issues are managed and reported.

1. The Companies Act 2006 (the “Act”)

The Act requires directors to carry out their duties in a way which is most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole. The Act also obliges most companies to produce a business review. Directors of listed companies must understand the likely consequences of any decision in the long-term and disclose the main trends and factors likely to affect the future development, performance or position of the company’s business in their business review. Large quoted companies must also report on environmental risks, policies and key performance indicators (KPIs). Environmental risks encompass a wide range of issues, not purely climate change although climate change may be an inherent factor. In order to assist with the reporting process the Accounting Standards Board has issued a statement of best practice and DEFRA has issued guidance on KPIs.

2. Recent Guidance for Auditors

In September 2009 the Environment Agency and the Institute of Chartered Accountants for England and Wales (ICAEW) launched new guidance on annual reporting in annual financial statements, entitled “Turning Questions into Answers: Environmental Issues and Annual Financial Reporting 2009”. The report provides guidance to assist preparers, users and auditors of annual financial statements to identify sufficiently relevant environmental issues, which affect company financials warranting disclosure. The aim being that the disclosure of management policies relating to environment matters and companies’ corporate commitment to these issues will assist in avoiding financial risks and prompt internal change. The report is expected to be of interest to directors and users of annual reports in addition to auditors.

Whilst particular obligations are placed by the Act on large and quoted companies to report on environment related risks, policies and KPIs, the report advocates voluntary reporting for all companies in excess of the required standards in order to generate information on environment performance.

3. Calls for harmonized climate change disclosure framework

The ICAEW, the Climate Disclosure Standards Board and Prince’s Accounting for Sustainability Project and others including 12 accountancy institutes from around the world have called for a single set of universally accepted standards for climate change related disclosures in mainstream financial reports.

In 2009 the Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) consulted on a Draft Reporting Framework designed for companies to use in evaluating the type and extent of disclosures that should be made about climate change in their mainstream reports. The Framework is to apply to disclosures made in or connected to information provided outside financial statements – such as the business review – that assists in the interpretation of a complete set of financial statements or improved users’ ability to make efficient economic decisions. A response to the public consultation is expected in the first quarter of 2010.

Ceres report on survey of asset managers practices

A recent report by Ceres entitled “Investors Analyze Climate Risks and Opportunities: A Survey of Asset Managers Practices” (January 2010) is also of significance. The report is the result of a survey conducted in 2009 of the world’s 500 largest asset managers asking them to describe how they are considering climate risks in short and long-term decisions. The report examines best practices that asset managers are using to incorporate climate and environment risks into their due diligence, corporate governance and portfolio valuation. The key findings reveal that many companies are still developing protocols for reporting on their carbon emissions and the risks and opportunities that they face. Whilst these disclosures are more prevalent, they are still voluntary and lack consistency.

The report notes that five of the world’s largest financial institutions have adopted the Carbon Principles, a roadmap for banks and utilities to evaluate and mitigate climate risks in lending to electricity generation projects. These financing entities acted out of concern about long-term viability of high-emission electricity generation. This means that the Carbon Principles initiative could increase the cost of financing high-emission enterprises if lenders demand more favorable terms to compensate them for potential liability, or if they simply avoid financing high-emitting projects. Ceres identifies that utilities that are investing in energy efficiency and cleaner renewable energy may not only face fewer material risks related to climate change regulation, but may also benefit from lower financing costs and higher market share, as emission regulations and renewable portfolio standards take effect.


Increasingly climate change impacts, sustainability issues and environmental compliance are being considered in making investment decisions. The emergence of new guidance on requirements for disclosures on climate change risks is indicative of heightened awareness of how environment related legislation, policy and risks should be factored into business decision making in a cohesive way.  More developments in this area should be expected.


For UK Hotels — A duty to reduce carbon emissions

8 December, 2009

(This article first appeared in Hotel Report.)

In April 2010, a new regime designed to improve energy efficiency and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by businesses will be implemented in the United Kingdom. As well as the large hotel chains, this will also affect owners of unbranded hotels that exceed the relevant electricity usage thresholds and all owners of branded hotels.

To be known as the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) scheme, it is a mandatory scheme and will apply to organizations whether in the public or private sector who have at least one electricity meter settled on the half hourly market and whose annual UK electricity usage exceeded 6,000 MWh which represents an annual electricity bill of roughly $985 million at current rates.

What is the CRC scheme?

Under the CRC scheme, participating organizations must purchase “allowances” sold by the government for each ton of carbon dioxide that they emit.  The initial price will be nearly$20 per ton. So there is a direct incentive for these organizations to reduce their emissions and therefore their energy bills.

Additionally, the better a participating organization performs at reducing its emissions, the higher its ranking in the annual performance league table that the Government plans to publish showing the comparative performance of all participants. Government proceeds from selling allowances will be handed back to those organizations that feature most highly in the league tables.

What constitutes an ‘organization’?

Group organizations will be treated as a single entity under the CRC scheme and all members of that group will be required to participate. There are two main groupings that constitute ‘organizations’:

  1. Corporate groups, i.e. all parent companies and subsidiaries, including subsidiaries of foreign parent companies; and
  2. Franchise groups, which include not only the franchisor’s corporate group, but also all franchisees of the franchisor.

It is important to note that there are significant financial penalties for non-compliance and liability for compliance with the CRC scheme will be joint and several and attach to all entities within the CRC organization.

The implication for the hotel industry

The implications depend on whether the hotel in question is leased, managed or franchised. Whilst a managed hotel is distinguished from a franchised hotel in the hotel industry, any managed hotel that is operated under the manager’s brand will be treated as part of a franchise for the purposes of the CRC scheme.

Leased hotels

Under a standard lease, a hotel operator as tenant is likely to be the counterparty to the energy contract in place as opposed to the owner as landlord.  Under the CRC regime as currently envisioned, CRC liability for energy use will attach to the hotel operator itself if it is a single entity or where the hotel operating company is part of a group, all of the companies in the group (subject to certain exceptions) which together will constitute the CRC Organization.

In the less common situation where the landlord is the energy contract counterparty (perhaps where the hotel is part of a larger mixed-use building), then the CRC liability will reside with the landlord. The commercial lease arrangement between the landlord and the tenant will determine whether the landlord can recover the cost of the allowances through the service charge and/or whether the tenant is entitled to share in any rebates – the CRC regime does not govern this private matter.

Franchised or branded managed hotels

The definition of a franchisee is where the franchisee “presents or equips [the hotel] premises to a standard or specification which results in that premises having an internal appearance which is substantially uniform with premises belonging to other franchisees of that franchisor or of the franchisor itself.” This means that:

  1. The owner of a branded hotel is associated with the operator under the CRC scheme.
  2. The operator’s corporate group will be aggregated with all its franchisees’ hotels for the purposes of determining the ‘CRC Organization’.
  3. The parent of the operator’s group (or the UK group company nominated by the parent) will need to purchase allowances for the whole CRC Organization.
  4. The management agreement will need to determine whether the operator can recover the cost of purchasing allowances as an operating expense and, if so, how rebates given back to the CRC Organization will be re-credited to individual owners.

Unbranded managed hotels

Normally the owner will have the liability to purchase allowances, if it is large enough to qualify. However, if the manager has a single contract for electricity under a group-purchasing scheme for all hotels managed by it, and it pays the bill with a re-charge to owners, then the manager may become responsible for purchasing the allowances. If the manager contracts with the electricity provider, but merely as agent for the owner, then that contract will be considered to be the owner’s and the owner will be responsible for purchasing allowances.

Next steps for owners and operators

Hotel operators, who may be aware of the need to measure their own electricity usage in owned and leased hotels and their head offices, may need to ensure that they are in a position to measure usage of all UK hotels operated under one of their brands, whether on a managed or franchised basis. On the basis that no management agreements expressly deal with this issue, operators should ensure that they agree a protocol with their owners as to how the system will operate in terms of re-charging for allowances and re-crediting of rebates.

Owners of branded hotels should challenge their operators/franchisors to explain what they intend to do to minimize the cost of the scheme by maximizing emissions reductions and therefore the rebates available under the scheme.

There will also be implications for investors, purchasers and developers of hotels who, together with owners and operators, will need to seek advice on how the CRC scheme will affect their involvement in the sector.

Australia Climate Change and D&O Implications

17 October, 2009

(Note:    This post first appeared on my ‘Comprehensive Multinational Post blog on 30 July 2009.)


The legislation in Australia for the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme highlights the need to consider carefully the scope of D&O insurance policies.

The Bills introduced into Australian Parliament to implement the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme will impact directly a large number of entities and their directors and officers. There will also be a broad, indirect impact when emissions trading starts. The CPRS Bills draw attention to key areas of D&O insurance policies.

Liability of executive officers and insurance for pecuniary penalties Under Part 20 of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009, ‘an executive officer will contravene a civil penalty provision if they are involved in a contravention by their company’. This makes executive officers personally liable for misconduct of the company if they have been reckless or negligent. The result may be significant pecuniary penalties imposed on the executive officer.

The Consequential Amendments Bill also extends the liability regime under the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007. Part 4 of the NGER Act will no longer be limited to liability of chief executive officers. It will, like the CPRS Bill, soon apply to a director, the chief executive officer, the chief financial officer and the secretary of a company. This would appear to include non-executive directors.

Traditionally insurers in the Australian D&O market have excluded liability for fines and penalties under D&O policies. Recently however there has been a move by some insurers to provide cover for civil penalties in some circumstances. It may be against public policy to cover officers for civil penalties where there has been a willful or deliberate breach of duty. On the other hand, vital cover may be available for officers who have only been negligent. It is recommended that companies and their directors may wish to consider whether their D&O policy provides cover for pecuniary penalties and whether that cover will extend to potential liability under the CPRS and NGER Act.

The new regulator and insurance for investigation costs

The Australian Climate Change Regulatory Authority Bill 2009 establishes the Australian Climate Change Regulatory Authority, which will be responsible for administering the CPRS, the Renewable Energy Target and the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System. Since climate change is one of the Federal Government’s key priorities, it may well become a powerful regulator.

When ASIC launches an investigation, the company and its directors can incur significant costs. The market for D&O insurance covering investigation costs has grown in recent years. Some policies will now cover directors for their costs in responding to an ASIC notice or attending an examination by ASIC, even if they have not been accused of any wrongful act. A more extensive policy may even provide cover when no formal notice has been served but the director is nevertheless required by the regulator to co-operate in some manner. When the Climate Change Authority exercises its powers, directors may need to look to their insurer to cover investigation costs.

Liability linked to the company and insurance for outside directorships and JVs

In its current form the CPRS Bill allows for transfer of liabilities and the nomination of a joint venture company to be the responsible entity. It is possible that a company may be liable for the control of a facility by an entity which is not a member of the company’s group. An executive officer can be personally liable for their company’s contravention of a civil penalty provision in the CPRS. That liability is linked to the company and not the operating entity.

The Government is continuing to consult with key stakeholders about controlling corporation liability and mechanisms to transfer that liability within corporate groups. For directors who hold outside directorships and responsibility in relation to unincorporated joint ventures, however, it may be time to consider carefully the scope of their D&O policy as it applies to these issues. Some policies do not provide cover for outside directorships unless specifically requested. Others may automatically cover directors nominated to the boards of other companies but may exclude joint ventures.

Pollution exclusions

Finally, many insurance policies contain an exclusion relating to liability arising from the release, discharge or escape of pollutants. These are generally broadly worded exclusions. They could go so far as to impact cover which may otherwise have been available for liability under the CPRS.

Directors may wish to have frank discussions with their insurer about cover in relation to the CPRS. At a minimum, directors may want to consider a D&O policy which provides cover for “pollution defense costs”. They may also consider seeking that cover without a sub-limit of liability. A more extensive policy may even cover shareholder claims arising from pollution issues.


Subject to their passage through Parliament, the Bills establishing the CPRS will herald a new era in corporate responsibility. It is yet another reminder of the importance of considering D&O insurance in the context of the company’s broad risk management framework.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.